# Introduction to Statistics

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If you think that statistics has nothing to say about what you do, or how you could do it better, then you are either wrong or in need of a more interesting job.

Stephen Senn

Statistics is the science in data science. Without it, your "data-driven" decision-making may be driving you off a cliff edge. A solid grasp of statistical reasoning ensures that you tease only valid insights from your data.

Many traps await the unwary data explorer. In this course, you will learn how to avoid embarrassing mistakes that could undermine months of work.

You will gain hands-on experience with the tools required to make sense of your data and draw the correct conclusions. The focus is on statistical thinking. Concepts will be introduced intuitively before being expanded on formally. You will learn how to think in terms of distributions — not single-point estimates. Statistical methods will be introduced in the context of how to use them to gain insight and solve problems. As a bonus, you will also get the chance to use the powerful, industry-standard R environment to do the number-crunching.

Introduction to Statistics is an essential course for anyone technical, managerial or administrative — interested in using data to inform their decision-making. There are certification bundles available with this training. This course forms part of Learning Tree's Certified Decision Scientist program.

## Key Features of Introduction to Statistics:

• Learning Tree end-of-course exam included
• After-course computing sandbox included
• After-course instructor coaching included

## You Will Learn How To:

• Visualise data
• Draw conclusions about the features and quality of data sets
• Determine correlation
• Think of numbers as distributions
• Understand sampling and it's importance in statistic inference
• Use the power of computers to generate distributions for any problem
• Calculate confidence intervals and p-values
• Make valid statistic inferences using a range of hypothesis tests
• Critique statistical analyses
• Design and execute your own statistical projects

## Choose the Training Solution That Best Fits Your Individual Needs or Organisational Goals

LIVE, INSTRUCTOR-LED

### In Class & Live, Online Training

• 2-day instructor led training course
• After-course computing sandbox included
• After-course instructor coaching included
• Tuition fee fee can be paid later by invoice -OR- at the time of checkout by credit card

### Team Training

• Bring this or any training to your organisation
• Full - scale program development
• Delivered when, where, and how you want it
• Blended learning models
• Tailored content
• Expert team coaching

Anpassa kurs och innehåll efter teamets behov

#### Utveckla dig och ditt team med anpassade eller öppna kurser alternativt e-learning

Learning Tree erbjuder kundanpassad utbildning hos er, öppna kurser i Stockholm, London eller Washington, möjlighet att delta via våra Anywhere centers (Malmö, Göteborg, Linköping, Stockholm eller Borlänge) eller olika former av e-learning med lärarstöd. Läs mer på www.learningtree.se/priser .

### Note: This course runs for 2 dagar

• 9 - 10 sep 9:00 - 4:30 CEST Stockholm / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 17 - 18 feb 9:00 - 4:30 CET Stockholm / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 2 - 3 jun 9:00 - 4:30 BST Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 18 - 19 aug 9:00 - 4:30 BST Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 24 - 25 nov 9:00 - 4:30 GMT Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 10 - 11 maj 9:00 - 4:30 EDT Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 14 - 15 jun 9:00 - 4:30 EDT Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 12 - 13 jul 9:00 - 4:30 EDT New York / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 9 - 10 aug 9:00 - 4:30 EDT Ottawa / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 13 - 14 okt 9:00 - 4:30 EDT New York / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 8 - 9 nov 9:00 - 4:30 EST Ottawa / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 13 - 14 dec 9:00 - 4:30 EST Herndon, VA / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 10 - 11 jan 9:00 - 4:30 EST New York / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

• 14 - 15 mar 9:00 - 4:30 EDT Herndon, VA / Online (AnyWare) Boka Din Kursplats

Kurs med startgaranti

När du ser symbolen för “Guaranteed to Run” vid ett kurstillfälle vet du att kursen blir av. Garanterat.

## Important Statistics Course Information

• ### Requirements

There are no formal prerequisites for attending this course.

• ### Who Should Attend This Course

Anyone who is required to draw conclusions from numbers.

No prior knowledge of statistics or software packages is required. An inquisitive nature and an interest in using numbers to solve problems are essential.

## Statistics Course Outline

• ### Introduction and Overview

• Course philosophy
• Software
• Contents
• ### What is Statistics?

• Definition
• Types of statistician
• Variability
• Probability
• Let the die roll!
• Die roll outcomes
• Why is knowledge of statistics important?
• Descriptive vs inferential statistics
• Inferring population parameters
• Quantitative data
• Qualitative data
• R statistical software
• RStudio
• Interactive exercise manual demo
• ### Exploratory Data Analysis

• What is exploratory data analysis (EDA)
• Histograms and bar charts
• Bar chart vs histogram
• Bin width is crucial
• Right-skewed data
• Outliers
• Left-skewed data
• Bimodal data
• Separate subpopulations for analysis
• Individual value plot
• Subpopulation individual value plots
• Benefits of boxplots
• Boxplot
• Boxplot vs histogram
• Left-skewed boxplot
• Compare subpopulations using boxplots
• Swedish salaries by level of education
• Measures of central tendency
• Mean vs median
• Mean vs median for skewed data
• Mode
• Range and IQR
• Standard deviation
• Six figure summary
• Central tendency and spread equations
• Quantiles
• Benefits of scatterplots
• Scatterplot
• Highlighting subgroups on scatterplot
• What is correlation?
• Correlation examples
• Random data correlation
• Literacy rate correlation
• # children per woman correlation
• Interpreting correlation coefficients
• Correlation doesn’t imply causation
• Causation doesn’t imply (linear) correlation
• ### Probability Distributions

• Numbers are mostly reckless estimates
• Random variables
• Male life expectancy in UK distribution
• What’s the probability that a US man is 6’ or more?
• What is a probability distribution?
• Populations vs samples
• Sampling the heights of 10 random American men
• Sampling the heights of 100,000 random American men
• Discrete probability distributions
• Roll two dice and histogram the results
• Poisson distribution
• Binary probability distributions
• Probability distribution for cars/household in the UK
• Binomial distribution
• Geometric distribution
• Negative Binomial distribution
• Continuous probability distributions
• Uniform distribution
• Triangular distribution
• Normal distribution
• Properties of the normal distribution
• Distribution of IQ scores
• Different means (same standard deviation)
• Different standard deviations (same mean)
• z-distribution
• 68–95–99.7 (empirical) rule
• Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plot
• Q-Q plot of non-normal data
• Common probability distributions “family tree”
• ### Sampling

• Samples are proxies for the population of interest
• Unfortunately, samples vary
• Larger samples exhibition less variation
• Statistics vs parameters
• Distributions involved in statistical inference
• Sampling distribution of mean IQ
• Collecting more IQ samples
• Sampling distribution of mean die roll
• Sampling distribution of mean project duration
• Create a sampling distribution
• Central limit theorem
• Implications of the central limit theorem
• Standard error of the mean (SEM)
• Impact of sample size on SEM
• What is a confidence interval?
• 95% confidence interval
• Bigger samples give greater precision
• Smaller confidence levels result in tighter intervals
• How should we interpret the confidence interval?
• Random sampling
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Cluster sampling
• What is bootstrapping?
• Estimating median life expectancy
• ### Statistical Inference

• What is statistical inference?
• Why must we use samples?
• Why do we need to conduct hypothesis tests?
• What is hypothesis testing?
• Null hypothesis
• Alternative hypothesis
• Rejecting the null hypothesis
• One- vs Two-tailed hypothesis tests
• Choosing between one- and two-tailed tests
• What are p-values?
• Significance level (?)
• Types of errors
• Confidence levels vs significance levels
• Performing hypothesis tests
• p-value controversy
• When to use a t-test
• t-value
• t-distribution
• t-distributions
• Are slot machine payouts within tolerance?
• Preform a t-test on RTP data using R
• Two-sample t-test
• When to use a z-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using z-scores
• When to use a 2 test
• Education and Brexit vote
• Brexit vote breakdown
• 2 value
• 2 distributions
• Are education and Brexit vote related?
• When to use a F-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using F-values
• F-distributions
• Height distribution by sex
• Does height variation differ by sex?
• When to use analysis of variance (ANOVA)
• Determining the F-value
• Are all diets the same?
• All diets are apparently not the same
• Normality hypothesis tests
• Statistically significant treatments?
• What is statistical power?
• Calculating statistical power
• Statistical power curve
• Improving statistical power of hypothesis tests

## Statistics FAQs

• ### What is statistics?

Statistics is the science of analysing data, particularly in large quantities, and using it to draw more general conclusions.

• ### Why is a knowledge of statistics valuable in business?

Without statistics, conclusions drawn from data can be fatally flawed. As data becomes ubiquitous, the ability to analyse it responsibly is essential.

• ### What background do I need for this Introduction to Statistics course?

Participants be able to understand basic mathematical concepts (high-school level) and have a level of comfort with using computer software, such as Excel.

• ### Does this include any practical, hands-on learning?

Yes. There are various opportunities to conduct analyses throughout the period of the training.

• ### Can I take this training course online?

Yes! We know your busy work schedule may prevent you from getting to one of our classrooms which is why we offer convenient online training to meet your needs wherever you want. This course is available online, in person, or as Private Team Training.

##### Why do we require your location?

It allows us to direct your request to the appropriate Customer Care team.

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